Frontiers | How Many Is Enough?—Statistical Principles for Lexicostatistics | Psychology
method, or glottochronology (also called lexicostatistics, a method for estimating the approximate date when two or more languages separated from a common. Lexicostatistics has been applied in linguistics to inform phylogenetic relations among languages. Lexicostatistic dating of prehistoric ethnic contacts. Proc. Lexicostatistics refers to the statistical manipulation of lexical materials for historical Lexicostatistic dating of prehistoric ethnic contacts. Proc.
Despite of its wide applications, there are a number of objections to lexicostatistics Bergsland and Vogt, ; Eska and Ringe, ; McMahon and McMahon, Many of the critics focus on the composition of the vocabulary list, such as what concepts can be utilized for collecting potential cognates and whether it is possible to construct a universal concept list for cognate assembly.
Other critics concern the uncertainties inherent in the two steps above. Some of these uncertainties deserve more discussion here Baxter and Ramer, First, it remains unclear whether comparison among or Swadesh words can reasonably demonstrate the relatedness between languages. Apart from the Swadesh lists, some linguists suggest using much smaller vocabulary lists for cognate collection.
Some of these lists contain 40 Holman et al. By contrast, others advocate using much bigger lists for this purpose, which consist of — concepts Greenberg, ; Ruhlen, ; Li, ; Newman, ; Huang, ; Jiang, Linguistic intuitions and experiences are still the primary considerations to construct these lists Heggarty,and many lists share several concepts with the Swadesh lists.
Second, the threshold of recurrent sound correspondence is subject to not only the size of the vocabulary list but also the occurring frequencies of involved segments in the list. For example, if the vocabulary list is big and two segments appear frequently in the assembled words according to this list, the chance of finding an accidental correspondence or borrowing between them would increase.
Hence, it would require more instances of such correspondence to confirm whether it is a recurrent correspondence or not. By contrast, if the vocabulary list is small and two segments are less frequent, a small number say, two of matching instances is sufficient to confirm recurrent correspondence between the segments Ringe, ; Kessler, Third, Swadesh argued that the word list could reliably reflect the vertical, inheritance relations among languages Swadesh, Due to the ease of gathering words compared tomany language comparison studies have directly used the Swadesh word list for word assembly.
Before taking this simpler approach, one needs to clarify whether the Swadesh word list is quantitatively a special sub-list of the Swadesh word list.
This can be clarified by the following two questions: Whether the distribution of sound correspondences in the words collected by the Swadesh word list can reliably resemble the distribution of the same correspondences in the words collected by the Swadesh word list; Whether the distribution based on the Swadesh word list can resemble those based on other word sub-lists constructed by randomly sampling from the Swadesh word list.
In other words, whether a random split of the Swadesh word list into two word lists yields significantly distinct distributions; if so, the Swadesh word list would not be a special sub-list of the Swadesh word list. In this paper, we attempt to tackle the above uncertainties from a mathematical perspective.
Lexicostatistics, Glottochronology Research Papers - myhyundai.info
With more information about languages being available, the actual threshold can be updated accordingly. Apart from these principles, we also adopt some standard statistical tests to evaluate the generality of the Swadesh word list.
They can be reasonably extended to other complex cases. In the following sections, we derive the statistical principles from stochastic sampling theorems, and apply them in real cases of assembling cognates and detecting recurrent correspondences. Based on the empirical data and statistical tests, we also evaluate the generality of the Swadesh word list.
For the sake of simplicity, we only address two-language comparison. Finally, we discuss the importance of these principles to lexicostatistics.
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Statistical principles and example results Conventional size of the vocabulary list to assemble potential cognates We model the task of setting a conventional size of the basic vocabulary list for collecting potentially true cognates as a statistical task of constructing an exemplar set by sampling from a total set. Here, the total set refers to the total vocabulary V of a language, which contains N words.
For the sake of simplicity, we assume that V in each language being compared has roughly the same size. In mathematical terms, such matching can be described as in Equation 1: Swadesh [Page 7] hypothesized that there is a core.
Towards greater accuracy in lexicostatistical dating. International Journal of American Linguistics This technique claims to make it possible to. Swadesh M 'Towards greater accuracy in lexicostatistical dating ' International. It is hardly ever explicitly claimed that lexicostatistical methods can provide The databases I am building are meant to be used for the purpose automated language classification and lexicostatistical dating. The second half of the 20th century saw Swadesh's lexicostatistical methods With special reference to.
Lexico-statistical dating of prehistoric ethnic contacts. Swadesh to four dialects of modern. Japanese and Old Japanese of the eighth century. By comparing the Kyoto. Chat dating lexicostatistical rooms and after spending a little lexicostatistical dating time browsing. Dating companies in charge sp3-bialapodlaska.
Ten Mayan languages co-existed at the lexicostatistically derived date of A. These lexemes are to be compared by means of the lexicostatistical proce. One of the cornerstones of nineteenth-century historical-comparative linguistics is the regularity hypothesis see Morpurgo Davies, To carry out similar lexicostatistical comparisons between the Taiwan. Multidimenssional Scaling of some Lexicostatistical Data. A Lexicostatistical Study of the Khasian Languages: Additionally, lexically based dating methods suggest that the.
Painter's lexicostatistical figures for the onset of the Ga-Dangme split point to an earlier dateabout the ninth century.