Red Guards | Chinese political movement | myhyundai.info
In accordance with this plan, the Soviet army occupied and annexed eastern and the Ukraine, most of the Baltic states, and eastern Poland from Nazi rule. At the end of the Civil War there were over 5,, men in the Red Army. . and indicated the original date, May 15, then the revised date, and the final date. The violent revolution marked the end of the Romanov dynasty and centuries of Russian Imperial rule. During the Russian Revolution, the Bolsheviks, led by.
Attacks upon the "Four Olds"[ edit ] Main article: Red Guards dragged the remains of the Wanli Emperor and Empresses to the front of the tomb, where they were posthumously "denounced" and burned. It also highlighted the role students would be asked to play in the movement. After the 18 August rally, the Cultural Revolution Group directed the Red Guards to attack the ' Four Olds ' of Chinese society old customs, old culture, old habits and old ideas.
For the rest of the year, Red Guards marched across China in a campaign to eradicate the 'Four Olds'. Old books and art were destroyed, museums were ransacked, and streets were renamed with new revolutionary names and adorned with pictures and the sayings of Mao.
One of the greater damages was to the Ming Dynasty Tomb of the Wanli Emperor in which his and the empress's corpses along with a variety of artifacts from the tomb were destroyed by student members of the Red Guard.
Between the assaults on Wan Li and Confucius' tombs alone, more than historic Chinese artifacts were destroyed in the desire to achieve the goals of the Cultural Revolution. Commonly religious texts and figures would be confiscated and burned. Other times items of historic importance would be left, but defaced, with examples such as Qin Dynasty scrolls having their writings partially removed and stone and wood carvings having the faces and words carved out of them.
Re-education came alongside the destruction of previous culture and history, throughout the Cultural Revolution schools were a target of Red Guard groups to teach both the new ideas of the Cultural Revolution; as well as to point out what ideas represented the previous era idealizing the Four Olds. For example, one student, Mo Bo, described a variety of the Red Guards activities taken to teach the next generation what was no longer the norms. These actions inspired other students across China to join the Red Guard as well.
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One of these very people, Rae Yangdescribed how these actions inspired students. Through authority figures, such as teachers, using their positions as a form of absolute command rather than as educators gave students a reason to believe Red Guard messages.
Attacks on culture quickly descended into attacks on people.
Ignoring guidelines in the 'Sixteen Articles' that stipulated that persuasion rather than force were to be used to bring about the Cultural Revolution, officials in positions of authority and perceived 'bourgeois elements' were denounced and suffered physical and psychological attacks. The number injured was "too large to be calculated.
Many people who were targets of 'struggle' could no longer bear the stress and committed suicide. In August and Septemberthere were 1, people murdered in Beijing alone. In Shanghai there were suicides and deaths related to the Cultural Revolution in September.
In Wuhan there were 62 suicides and 32 murders during the same period. Many were ousted from official posts such as university teaching and allocated manual tasks such as "sweeping courtyards, building walls and cleaning toilets from 7am to 5pm daily" which would encourage them to dwell on past "mistakes".
This search was to extend to the very highest echelons of the CPC, with many top party officials, such as Liu ShaoqiDeng Xiaoping and Peng Dehuai being attacked both verbally and physically by the Red Guards. Although Mao stepped down from his post as a sign of accepting responsibility, he was angered that a capitalist roader like Liu could take the reins of communist China.
The Red Guards were not permitted to enter Zhongnanhaithe Forbidden Cityor any military facility which was tasked with classified information i. Several times, Red Guards attempted to storm Zhongnanhai and the Special Regimentwhich was responsible for Mao's security, fired upon the Red Guards. When Red Guards entered factories and other areas of production, they encountered resistance in the form of worker and peasant groups who were keen to maintain the status quo.
The most radical students often found themselves in conflict with more conservative Red Guards. On the one hand, the Cultural Revolution Group reiterated calls for non-violence. Article 5 stipulated that the political and economic systems and the sovereignty of both parties shall not be affected by the treaty. Article 6 dealt with ratification, and stipulated that the treaty shall remain in force for ten years, with an option to extend it for further ten years.
As Latvian National Foundation says the agreement called for Latvia to: Section 5 of the Pact reads as follows: The areas set aside for the bases and airfields remain the territory of the Latvian Republic. A second call a year later brought out another 10, Winter War Winter War: Finland's concessions Similar demands were forwarded to Finland. On October 5,the Finns had been invited to Moscow to "discuss mutual problems. Because the Soviet attack was judged as illegal, the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations on December The first Soviet occupation[ edit ] Political background[ edit ] Apparent escape from Finland's fate may have led to a false sense of security for Latvia.
Four months before the arrival of Soviet troops in Latvia, Vilhelms Muntersaddressing an audience at the University of Latvia on February 12,stated, "We have every reason to describe the relations existing between Latvia and the Soviet Union as very satisfactory.
There are people who will say that these favourable conditions are of a temporary nature only, and that sooner or later we shall have to reckon with internal-political and foreign-political pressure on the part of the Soviet Union. The foundation on which they base these prophesies is a secret of the prophets themselves. The experience of our Government certainly does not justify such forebodings.
In March and April,immediately after Molotov's speech, the Soviet press commenced attacks on the Latvian government. When those failed to develop into a general strike, the Soviets blamed that failure on the "irresponsible element which spoils the good neighbourly relations. The Lithuanian government sought to clear up this matter by a Soviet-Lithuanian commission under the terms of the mutual assistance pact. Moscow rejected this proposal and cut off further discussion, soon showing and rapidly playing their hand: On June 12,the order for a total military blockade on Estonia to the Soviet Baltic Fleet is given: On the same day, the Soviet blockade of Estonia went into effect.
According to eyewitness accounts pieced together by Estonian and Finnish investigators, two Soviet bombers downed Finnish passenger airplane Kaleva flying from Tallinn to Helsinki carrying three diplomatic pouches from the U. Unable to resist on their own, with no external assistance available, under threat of the bombing of cities and heavily outnumbered, Latvia and Estonia capitulated. Loss of independence[ edit ] Soviet orchestration of events continued following the invasion, complete with protestors, who had arrived with the Red Army troops, organizing mass marches and meetings in order to create the impression of popular unrest: June 19, — Vishinski visits Ulmanis again, this time, to deliver the list, pre-approved by Moscow, of the new members of the cabinet of the Latvian government.
June 20, — Ulmanis forced to approve pro-Soviet government which takes office. Jailed members of the formerly illegal communist party released. Public "processions of thanksgiving" organized in honour of Stalin. Molotov is blunt in communicating the Soviet intent to occupy the entire region: Your Lithuania along with the other Baltic nations, including Finland, will have to join the glorious family of the Soviet Union. Therefore you should begin now to initiate your people into the Soviet system, which in the future shall reign everywhere, throughout all Europe; put into practice earlier in some places, as in the Baltic nations, later in others.
Deportations are already taking place from territory not yet part of the Soviet Union. July 14—15, — Rigged elections held in Latvia and the other Baltic states. Only one pre-approved list of candidates was allowed for elections for the " People's Parliament ". The ballot must be deposited without any changes. Most notably, the complete election results were published in Moscow 12 hours before the election closed.
Soviet electoral documents found later substantiated that the results were completely fabricated. Tribunals were set up to punish "traitors to the people. Those who failed to have their passports stamped for so voting were allowed to be shot in the back of the head. It has only one piece of business—a petition to join the Soviet Union. The consideration of such an action was denied throughout the election. The petition carried unanimously.
However, it was illegal under the Latvian Constitution, still in effect, which required a plebiscite referendum for approving such an action: Ulmanis is forced to resign. July 22, — Ulmanis deported to the Soviet Union, dying in captivity in